Caves; Due to the excessive erosion of soft volcanic deposits and moving lava, the slopes of Mt Elgon were damaged with caves such at the commonly visited Khauka cave on Wanale Ridge and the Kapkwai cave which is located near the Forest Exploration Centre. There caves were once homes for the local people and their livestock and later on they became homes for bats and these would provide manure in form of bat droppings. Previously, these caves have been used by the mountain climber and their assistants (potters), and they still work, for example there are campsites at the Hunters Cave, Mude cave, Tutum Cave, and Siyo cave (located near the hot springs. These campsites are ideal for overnight expeditions.
The Jackson’s Pool and Jackson’s Peak; the Jackson’s pool is a natural pool with swallow waters standing at 4,050m overlying in the shadow of a free-standing volcanic plug called the Jackson’s peak which rises up to 4,165m high from the western side of then mountain. This peak and a pool are features named after Fredrick Jackson who was the first European Explorer to Climb Mountain Elgon in 1889.
The Peaks and the Caldera; The highest peaks of Mount Elgon are a result of high points around the sharp rim covering one of the calderas at about 8kmwide and 40km long. Wagagai is the highest peak with 4,321, followed by Sudek at 4,303, Koitobos at 4,222m and the Mubiyi at 4,210m.
Caldera was formed as a result of volcanic forces which drained the magma from the chamber causing the overlying volcanic cone to collapse and a forma depression-like shape. At the start of the deep shape from the eastern side of the caldera are the hot springs while to the northwest is the Simu gorge which came as a result of too much water flow leading to two stream beds from the agglomerate walls and weak volcanic ash.
The vegetation; the vegetation of Mount Elgon is divided in various zones that are a result of the altitude and rainfall. The lower slopes of mountain are enclosed with dense and regenerating forests, epiphytes and lichens and hung with vine-like lianas. The floor of the mountain is covered with ferns, flowering plants and orchids.
At 2500-3000m, the zone changes into mixed bamboo which further turns into woodland.
At 3000-3500m, the woodland zone then turns into the heath zone characterized by giant heather which amazing grasses dotted with pink and white everlasting flowers and red hot pokers.
From 3,500 -4,321m is the moorland which contains ladies’ mantle tussocks, Erica tree, pink and white everlasting flowers and giant lobelias.
The peak of the mountain is covered by the rare Afro-montane species such as the huge types of lobelia and groundsel.
Sipi Falls: a series of massive basalt cliffs of several kilometers long rise from the northern and western sides of Mount Elgon where the Mountain Rivers plunge as beautiful waterfalls. There are mainly 3 waterfalls that are commonly known and visited and these include; the Sipi on Kapchorwa road located just outside the park. The most spectacular of the caves is the lowest as it cascades over 100m cliff. The other water falls are the Simba falls and Ngasire falls.
Wildlife; there are various animals that live in Mount Elgon National park such as Buffalo, Elephants, waterbuck, forest hog, duiker, oribi, leopard, bush pig, serval cat, aardvark, spotted hyena and many species of rodents. These animals are however not easily seen in the park. The most common ones include red tailed, vervet, duiker and tree squirrel, black-and-white Colobus, baboons, De Brazza’s and blue monkeys.
Birds; Mount Elgon national Park inhabits at least 300 species of birds of which 40are restricted rangeb species. Out of the 87 afro tropical highland biome species, 56 species live in Mt Elgon National Park, some of these species include; Mustached Green Tinker bird, Alpine Chat and Moorland Francolin. In Uganda, the endangered Lammergeyer can be seen in Mt Elgon soaring above the Caldera and the Suam gorge.